- Argument Mapping Tutorials. Six online tutorials in argument mapping, a core requirement for advanced critical thinking.
- The Skeptic's Dictionary - over 400 definitions and essays.
- The Fallacy Files by Gary Curtis. Best website on fallacies.
- Butterflies and Wheels. Excellent reading - news, articles, and much more.
- Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts by Peter Facione. Good overview of the nature of critical thinking. (pdf file)
- Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion by John Stuart Mill. Classic chapter, densely packed with wisdom about thinking.
- Chance - best resource for helping students think critically about issues involving probability and statistics
- Psychology of Intelligence Analysis, by Richards Heuer. A good overview of how to improve thinking in the light of insights from cognitive psychology.
- A Handbook on Writing Argumentative and Interpretative Essays by Ian Johnston
- Baloney Detection Part 1 and Part 2 - by Michael Shermer. 10 step guide.
What is critical thinking?
Nobody said it better than Francis Bacon, back in 1605:
For myself, I found that I was fitted for nothing so well as for the study of Truth; as having a mind nimble and versatile enough to catch the resemblances of things … and at the same time steady enough to fix and distinguish their subtler differences; as being gifted by nature with desire to seek, patience to doubt, fondness to meditate, slowness to assert, readiness to consider, carefulness to dispose and set in order; and as being a man that neither affects what is new nor admires what is old, and that hates every kind of imposture.
A shorter version is the art of being right.
Or, more prosaically: critical thinking is the skillful application of a repertoire of validated general techniques for deciding the level of confidence you should have in a proposition in the light of the available evidence.
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